Question for written answer
to the Commission
Rule 130
Alfred Sant (S&D)

E-001464/2016
Subject: Precarious employment in the EU

On the Commission website dealing with the EU’s 2012 Employment package(1), ‘reducing the labour market segmentation between those in precarious employment and those on more stable employment’ is listed as a primary measure to restore the dynamics of labour markets.
In this connection, the Commission is asked to provide the following information:
— its definition of ‘precarious employment’;
— EU statistics on ‘precarious employment’ in the internal market;
— future plans for addressing the problem of ‘precarious employment’ at an EU level.

Answer given by Ms Thyssen on behalf of the Commission (28.4.2016)

1. Precariousness usually means work uncertainty, income insufficiency, limited access to training, poor career prospects, low productivity and lack of protection against dismissal. Precariousness can affect workers with any form of employment contract, including open-ended contracts, but the most common types of precarious work are fixed-term, (involuntary) part-time work, bogus self-employment, informal and casual work.

2. Precarious work is difficult to measure. It can be approached by measuring fixed-term and part-time work, even though not all such work is precarious. In 2014, the proportion of fixed-term contracts in EU-28 was 14.0 % (1), with differences among Member States ranging from more than one in four employees to just 1.5% of employees in fixed-term work.

3. Addressing precariousness requires a comprehensive and holistic approach. The EU guidelines for the employment policies of the Member States (2) call on Member States to facilitate the creation of quality jobs and to prevent two-tier, segmented labour markets. Quality employment should be ensured in terms of socio-economic security, work organisation, education and training opportunities, working conditions and work-life balance. While the regulation of employment relationships falls primarily in the competence of the Member States, about 20 EU labour law directives set minimum standards with a view to protect workers, thereby combatting precariousness.

The targeted legislative revision of the Posting of Workers Directive (3), the establishment of the European Platform to enhance cooperation in the prevention and deterrence of undeclared work (4) and the consultation on a European Pillar of Social Rights (5) will also contribute to the fight against precariousness.

(1) Source: Eurostat Labour Force Survey.
(2) Council Decision (EU) 2015/1848 of 5 October 201.
(3) Commission proposal COM (2016) 128 final of 8 March 2016.
(4) Commission proposal COM(2014) 221 final of 9 April 2014.
(5) Commission communication COM (2016) 127 final of 8 March 2016.

E-001464/2016

Suġġett: L-Impjieg Prekarju fl-UE
Fuq il-websajt tal-Kummissjoni li titratta l-Pakkett dwar l-Impjiegi(1) tal-UE għall-2012, “it-tnaqqis tas-segmentazzjoni tas-suq tax-xogħol bejn dawk li huma f’impjiegi prekarji u dawk f’impjiegi aktar stabbli” huwa mnizzel bħala miżura ewlenija fir-restawr tad-dinamiċi tas-swieq tax-xogħol.
F’dan ir-rigward, il-Kummissjoni hija mitluba tipprovdi l-informazzjoni li ġejja:
— id-definizzjoni tagħha ta’ “impjieg prekarju”;
— l-istatistiċi tal-UE dwar l-“impjiegi prekarji” fis-suq intern;
— il-pjanijiet futuri biex tiġi indirizzata l-problema tal-“impjiegi prekarji” fuq livell tal-UE.

MT

1. Normalment il-prekarjetà tkun tfisser inċertezza fl-impijeg, nuqqas ta’ dħul biżżejjed, aċċess limitat għat-taħriġ, nuqqas ta’ prospetti fil-karriera, produttività baxxa u nuqqas ta’ protezzjoni mit-tkeċċija. Il-prekarjetà tista’ tolqot lill-ħaddiema b’kull forma ta’ kuntratt tal-impjieg, fosthom il-kuntratti indefiniti. Iżda l-aktar tipi komuni ta’ xogħol prekarju huma l-impjiegi għal żmien fiss, ix-xogħol part-time (involontarju), l-impjiegi indipendenti fittizji, u x-xogħol każwali u informali.

2. Ix-xogħol prekarju mhux faċli jitkejjel. Dan jista’ jsir billi jitkejjel ix-xogħol għal żmien fiss u x-xogħol part-time, iżda dawn mhux kollha jkunu prekarji. Fl-2014, il-proporzjon ta’ kuntratti tax-xogħol għal żmien fiss fl-UE-28 kien 14.0% (6), u dan ivarja ferm fost l-Istati Membri, minn kwart tal-ħaddiema għal sempliċiment 1.5% tal-ħaddiema.

3. Biex il-prekarjetà tiġi indirizzata, neħtieġu approċċ komprensiv u ħolistiku. Il-linji gwida tal-UE għall-politiki dwar l-impjiegi tal-Istati Membri (7) jappellaw lill-Istati Membri biex jagħmluha faċli li jinħolqu impjiegi ta’ kwalità u biex jevitaw milli s-swieq tax-xogħol jinferqu f’żewġ saffi. L-impjiegi ta’ kwalità għandna niżgurawhom mil-lat ta’ sigurtà soċjoekonomika, organizzazzjoni tax-xogħol, opportunitajiet tal-edukazzjoni u tat-taħriġ, kundizzjonijiet tax-xogħol u bilanċ bejn ix-xogħol u l-ħajja. Għalkemm ir-regolament dwar ir-relazzjonijiet tax-xogħol huwa qabelxejn fil-kompetenza tal-Istati Membri, madwar għoxrin direttiva dwar il-liġi tax-xogħol tal-UE jistabbilixxu standards minimi bil-ħsieb li jħarsu lill-ħaddiema, u b’dan il-mod jitħabtu kontra l-prekarjetà.

Minbarra dan, il-ġlieda kontra l-prekarjetà se tissokta bir-reviżjoni leġiżlattiva mmirata tad-Direttiva dwar l-Istazzjonar tal-Ħaddiema (8), bit-twaqqif tal-Pjattaforma Ewropea biex tissaħħaħ il-koperazzjoni fil-prevenzjoni u fl-iskoraġġiment tax-xogħol mhux dikjarat (9) u bil-konsultazzjoni fuq Pilastru Ewropew tad-Drittijiet Soċjali (10).

(6) Is-sors: Stħarriġ tal-Eurostat dwar il-Forza tax-Xogħol.
(7) Id-Deċiżjoni tal-Kunsill (UE) 2015/1848 tal-5 ta’ Ottubru 2015.
(8) Il-Proposta tal-Kummissjoni COM(2016) 128 final tat-8 ta’ Marzu 2016.
(9) Il-Proposta tal-Kummissjoni COM(2014) 221 final tad-9 ta’ April 2016.
(10) Il-Komunikazzjoni tal-Kummissjoni COM(2016) 127 final tat-8 ta’ Marzu 2016.